He was the grandson of two prominent abolitionists: Erasmus Darwin on his father's side, and Josiah Wedgwood on his mother's side.
This page intentionally left blank Preface Does social capital provide a viable means for advancing economic development, promoting ethnic peace, and strengthening democratic governance? This question has particular importance for our times. The Cold War is over, but civil wars and ethnic strife continue to mar the prospects for peace.
Something more needs to be done for making development, peace and democracy more fruitful for the ordinary citizen, and building social capital is thought to constitute a promising line of action. Communities with high social capital will achieve superior outcomes in multiple domains, it is claimed; and communities with low social capital can be assisted to build up stocks of this resource, so their performance will also improve over time.
Economic development, community peace, and democratic participation can all be promoted in this manner, simply by investing in the stock of social capital. Novel, wide-ranging and full of promise, this claim deserves to be investigated carefully.
This book investigates what social capital is, how it operates in practice, and what results it can be expected to produce. Theoretical premises related to social capital are tested with the help of evidence collected over two years x Preface in 69 village communities, located in two Indian states, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh.
Appendix A describes the methodology used for these investigations. Different hypotheses related to social capital were generated from a review of the academic literature on this subject, and a locally relevant scale was developed to measure and compare social capital and to test the competing hypotheses.
Social capital is not directly observable; people carry it inside their heads. What one can observe and measure are some manifestations or behavioral consequences given rise by social capital.
Different cultures permit and promote different expressions of social capital, so its observable aspects will vary contextually. A locally appropriate scale is developed in chapter 4 for measuring social capital.
How much does social capital matter for economic development, community peace, and democratic participation? In the second part of the book, I assess the usefulness of social capital separately in relation to each of these goals.
Alternative explanations are also considered in each case. Competing hypotheses are operationalized and tested using the Indian data. It is useful also for understanding the changing bases of social and political organization in rural communities.
Leadership based on caste and landed wealth is becoming less salient in these villages, and at the grassroots a new group of political entrepreneurs has arisen who are playing catalyst roles in making social capital more productive for the ordinary villager.
By building bridges between communities and their external environment, these new political entrepreneurs help to expand the range of possibilities that villagers can exploit to their common advantage. Preface xi Collective action in support of shared goals is more likely where social capital is high.
However, effective collective action and superior goal performance are achieved only where—in addition to high social capital—capable agents are also available. Another set of agents, the traditional and hereditary heads of village groups, make social capital productive for the purpose of community peace.
Agency helps to make social capital active.Charles Robert Darwin was born in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, on 12 February , at his family's home, The Mount.
He was the fifth of six children of wealthy society doctor and financier Robert Darwin and Susannah Darwin (née Wedgwood). He was the grandson of two prominent abolitionists: Erasmus Darwin on his father's side, and Josiah Wedgwood on his mother's side.
Crop circles initially appeared in the English countryside in the seventies and gradually spread over most of the world.
Having excluded hoaxters, Earth consciousness and secret military activities several conclusions can be drawn.
Whoever produces crop circles puts a lot of time and effort in this activity. The train got to Steyr before dusk, having followed a bend on the Enns that here meets the river that gives the town its name. This place was like a fairy tale town.
Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. What the fuck does that inbred cocksucker know anyway other than knowing that moonshine gets him drunk and rots his teeth out. maybe if he saw a real crop circle in the corn field he steals his corn from to make his moonshine, he would concur on something here.
Crop Circles of the Past There are many historical accounts of crop circle formations before the 20th century, some going back many hundreds of years. The first recorded account of an event that has many of the characteristics common to the formation of a crop circle dates from August 8, , and was detailed in a book published in called The Natural History of Stafford-Shire by Robert Plott.