Taking a more global view, the prestigious British Medical Journal BMJ looks at various attempts to tackle obesity and notes that obesity is caused by a complex and multitude of inter-related causesfuelled by economic and psychosocial factors as well as increased availability of energy dense food and reduced physical activity. The authors broke down the causes into the following areas:
It has also changed significantly over time. Most of this extra food energy came from an increase in carbohydrate consumption rather than fat consumption. In the United States, subsidization of corn, soy, wheat, and rice through the U.
Obese people consistently under-report their food consumption as compared to people of normal weight. Sedentary lifestyle See also: Sedentary lifestyle and Exercise trends A sedentary lifestyle plays a significant role in obesity.
The World Health Organization indicates people worldwide are taking up less active recreational pursuits, while a study from Finland  found an increase and a study from the United States found leisure-time physical activity has not changed significantly.
As ofmore than 41 of these sites on the human genome have been linked to the development of Obesity and the psychology of it when a favorable environment is present. The term "non-syndromic obesity" is sometimes used to exclude these conditions. Their ability to take advantage of rare periods of abundance by storing energy as fat would be advantageous during times of varying food availability, and individuals with greater adipose reserves would be more likely to survive famine.
This tendency to store fat, however, would be maladaptive in societies with stable food supplies. Medical illnesses that increase obesity risk include several rare genetic syndromes listed above as well as some congenital or acquired conditions: Social determinants of obesity The disease scroll Yamai no soshi, late 12th century depicts a woman moneylender with obesity, considered a disease of the rich.
While genetic influences are important to understanding obesity, they cannot explain the current dramatic increase seen within specific countries or globally. There are a number of theories as to the cause but most believe it is a combination of various factors.
The correlation between social class and BMI varies globally. A review in found that in developed countries women of a high social class were less likely to be obese.
No significant differences were seen among men of different social classes. In the developing world, women, men, and children from high social classes had greater rates of obesity.
The decrease in strength of correlation was felt to be due to the effects of globalization. A similar relationship is seen among US states: It is thought that in developed countries, the wealthy are able to afford more nutritious food, they are under greater social pressure to remain slim, and have more opportunities along with greater expectations for physical fitness.
In undeveloped countries the ability to afford food, high energy expenditure with physical labor, and cultural values favoring a larger body size are believed to contribute to the observed patterns.
A correlation in BMI changes over time has been found among friends, siblings, and spouses. Those who quit smoking gain an average of 4.
Gut bacteria See also: Infectobesity The study of the effect of infectious agents on metabolism is still in its early stages. Gut flora has been shown to differ between lean and obese humans. There is an indication that gut flora in obese and lean individuals can affect the metabolic potential.
This apparent alteration of the metabolic potential is believed to confer a greater capacity to harvest energy contributing to obesity.
Whether these differences are the direct cause or the result of obesity has yet to be determined unequivocally. The amount that these associations may have contributed to the rising rate of obesity is yet to be determined.
Pathophysiology of obesity There are many possible pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the development and maintenance of obesity. In particular, they and other appetite-related hormones act on the hypothalamusa region of the brain central to the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure.
There are several circuits within the hypothalamus that contribute to its role in integrating appetite, the melanocortin pathway being the most well understood.Current Public Interest policies of the American Psychological Association, on subjects such as disabilities, gender identity, sexual orientation, antisemitism, obesity .
Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century.
The problem is global and is steadily affecting many low- and middle-income countries, particularly in urban settings.
The prevalence has increased at an alarming rate. Globally, in the number of. At the other end of the malnutrition scale, obesity is one of today’s most blatantly visible – yet most neglected – public health problems.
Paradoxically coexisting with undernutrition, an escalating global epidemic of overweight and obesity – “globesity” – is taking over many parts of. Childhood overweight and obesity. Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century. The problem is global and is steadily affecting many low- and middle-income countries, particularly in urban settings.
PsyArticles publishes articles and features with a focus on psychological research and theory. The leading clinical reference work in the field--now significantly revised with 85% new material--this handbook gives practitioners and students a comprehensive understanding of the causes, consequences, and management of adult and childhood obesity.