Causes The election of the Republican Abraham Lincoln to the presidency in November triggered a chain of events that within six months shattered the Union and culminated in the outbreak of the Civil War. The coming to power of a Republican and Northern administration committed to prohibiting the expansion of slavery struck at the vital interests of the slave South; it was the signal eagerly awaited by the proponents of Southern independence to launch a secession movement. Tensions over slavery and the struggles to perpetuate or end the institution that dated back to the incomplete American Revolution of had now become so polarized along sectional lines that the North and South lacked common ground on which to compromise the issue. The Roots of Sectional Conflict.
A full description of the processes of conflict resolution within a community would entail a full description of the numerous and complex kinds and degrees of the divisive and common concerns among its members.
This statement acknowledges, on the one hand, that conflict and even war are by no means an abnormal part of international life Stone ; Wright ; Boasson ; Singer ; Boulding ; International Sociological Association It has been calculated that only years of the 3, years known to history have been free of wars.
Charles Boasson correctly says that such identification does not sufficiently take into account the role of accommodation and renunciation, the influence of norms of legal and ethical judgment, and the impact of the appeal to justice Boassonpp. The study Causes of unsuccessful peace initiatives essay international conflict resolution cannot be reduced to a detailed study of decision making, even if we could obtain all the information, perceptions, interpretations, and alternative choices available to decision makers Snyder et al.
Decisions are often deeply relevant to conflict, but such decisions are only part of the context and content of a conflict and its resolution.
Detailed decision-making studies have two serious drawbacks: The full constellation of circumstances that constitutes an international conflict is operative even if decision makers do not act and are not aware of all the circumstances. To count such inaction and unawareness as being themselves decisions would, of course, only fictionalize the whole approach Boassonpp.
It is an undoubted gain that since World War i the study of international conflict and its resolution has moved out of the general monopoly of the historian Boassonpp.
There is now a Journal of Conflict Resolution, and teaching and research in this area are widespread, especially in the United States. Notable experiments in methodology are also proceeding. A project of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace sought to identify conflicts and the phases through which they pass, with relation to rise and fall of tension and violent or nonviolent resolution.
At the important Center for Research in Conflict Resolution at the University of MichiganKenneth Boulding has essayed a systematic study of conflict as a general social process and of international conflict within this frameworkpp.
Robert North at Stanford University is seeking, with the aid of computers, to identify, from the myriad of factors constituting the constellation of circumstances of past international crises, those factors that are generally significant in interpreting and handling such crises.
Relevant work has also been done by biologists on animal conflicts and by psychologists and sociologists on individual and group behavior e.
These approaches, whatever they may add to knowledge, have scarcely revolutionized the handling of international conflict. But awareness of intractability even to specialized research may in itself promote patience and restraint on action that would be a positive factor in conflict resolution.
The purpose of this article is to identify and describe some of the approaches to resolution of conflict between states that have become institutionalized, or at any rate nominate. Specifically, this encompases the wide range of approaches between war and international sanctions, at one extreme, and mere negotiation, at the other, and includes good offices, mediation, commissions of enquiry, and arbitration [see adjudication ].
In municipal society we naturally think of process of law as a mandatory frame for handling major disputes. And despite the comparative weakness of international lawconflict resolution cannot neglect this. Yet, the international legal frame is not only weaker; it seems to rest on a base diametrically opposed to the municipal.
Though each state remains its own judge, this gives it no competence over another state; for every other state also enjoys the same prerogative. It takes two to make a quarrel; and it also takes both disputants to confer international competence.
A simple corollary to this is that each disputant is also at liberty to give effect to its own determination of its own rights. Although this liberty has been restrained by various international instruments such as the Kellogg-Briand Pact and the League of Nations Covenant now replaced by the United Nations Charterthe extent of the restraints remains debated and problematical.
The inhibitions on the major use of force between states are today not primarily legal but factual and psychological, springing from the distribution of economic and technological power and from the universal implications of the resort to nuclear weapons. Bargaining and positional maneuvering take place within an essentially military arena, whatever the final, correct legal interpretation.
The contemporary problems connected with the resort to force by major powers, which face us as a matter of fact, are largely a continuation of those that faced the pre world as a matter of both law and fact Stone ; Good offices and mediation Good offices and mediation are special forms of negotiation in which a third party plays a role Nicolson ; Forgac It is indicative of the comparatively recent growth and primitive nature of international arrangements for conflict resolution that even good offices is so highly valued as a method.
For its import is only to restore communication and negotiation between disputants and perhaps induce some restraint in that communication; there is no obligation of the parties to go further.
The central negative feature of good offices is that its function does not extend even to expressing opinions on the merits, much less to any decision making.
These functions are extremely modest, each party maintaining as the Palestine and Kashmir and other contemporary cases have painfully shown both the right of final decision and that of deciding whether negotiation with or without mediation is to proceed at all. Mediation differs from good offices mainly in the degree of noncoercive initiative permitted to the third party.
The mediator, once he is invited to act, is free not only to transmit but also to initiate suggestions for solution Wehberg Fact finding Success in any of these procedures being manifest in agreement, not decision, the merits of the dispute as to fact or law may never emerge at all.
It is notorious that disputants see facts their own way, and this is especially true of states, which are often better able to conceal the evidence than are individuals. State resistance to third-party intrusion has always extended with particular jealousy to third-party fact finding, even when this is merely advisory.
Not surprisingly, therefore, institutionalization of procedures of international fact finding is almost as recent as that of international adjudication.After the unsuccessful Yom Kippur War with Israel in , an OPEC oil embargo by Arab nations demonstrated a new way to influence European and American policy.
Oil prices quadrupled from $3 a. Causes of Refugee Problems and the International Response Luise Druke-Bolewski Fellow and Visiting Researcher Harvard University (published in: Human Rights and the Protection of Refugees under International Law, Proceedings of a conference held in Montreal, November .
Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani (Arabic: تميم بن حمد آل ثاني ; born 3 June ) is the current Emir of Qatar. He is the fourth son of the previous Emir, Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani.
Essay on The Effectiveness of the Arab and Israeli Peace Initiatives The Effectiveness of the Arab and Israeli Peace Initiatives The Arab and Israeli peace initiatives that have taken place between the s and s have been both successful and unsuccessful; however the successful initiatives have been limited in reaching the ultimate goal of peace between the Arabs and Israelis.
Between and the cause of democracy experienced only a few setbacks, but since there have been many. And democracy’s problems run deeper than mere numbers suggest. Causes of Refugee Problems and the International Response Luise Druke-Bolewski Fellow and Visiting Researcher Harvard University (published in: Human Rights and the Protection of Refugees under International Law, Proceedings of a conference held in Montreal, November December 2, , ed.