Mother W hen fathers are weak and lacking in compassionate command authority, mothers will often step in to take control of the family. Consequently, children in such families can become enmeshed with their mothers, seeking always to please the mothers, and always terrified of slipping up and drawing down on themselves the wrath of a slighted mother. Many of these persons can fall into stifled, dysfunctional lives and suicidal tendencies.
Prev Next Preparing for death — rituals from different cultures The only certainty in life is death. For centuries, humans have been trying to find ways to come to terms with this, which might explain why many believe in an afterlife. From ancient tribes to the modern Western world, people have important rituals and beliefs around death… More What is death?
It may seem strange to ask this but the first question we need to address is what death actually is, says Dr Jonathan Jong from the Institute for Cognitive and Evolutionary Anthropology, University of Oxford. Even in scientific communities, there is not complete agreement on this.
What about if someone has a terminal illness and parts of their bodies die before they do as organs shut down and stop working?
For example, in some parts of Indonesia, families dig up the bodies of their dead relatives and rebury them. They speak of a person not being properly dead until the second burial.
Caring about a dead body In some parts of Tibet, corpses are left on a mountain rather than buried. For some, this may sound rather heartless. Similarly, in Ancient Persia now Iran some tribes like the Zoroastrians, used to build towers of silence where they placed their dead to be eaten by birds.
All cultures care about dead bodies but they care in different ways. Perhaps some people might think dressing a corpse - even performing cosmetic surgery on it as American undertakers are often expected to do - is strange? Increasingly in the UK too, dead bodies are drained of their natural fluids and filled with embalming liquid to preserve them.
These practices may seem normal to us, but bizarre to others. The practice of hanging coffins on the side of the cliff dates back hundreds of years in Sagada, Philippines. We need these rituals, says Dr Jong, because our feelings about death can be ambivalent mixed.
Not only do they represent reminders of our mortality, but can also be sources of infectious disease. We are therefore torn between needing to dispose of a corpse that might bear germs and wanting to hold on to the body that is still recognisable as belonging to someone we have known and loved.
This contradiction may be why we surround death with pomp dramatic displays and ceremony. We still see him as a person. There is little evidence that the question of what a good death is occurred in early human hunter-gatherer societies.
It is something that developed culturally over time. There is certainly a long Western tradition of thinking about this, starting as far back as the ancient Greek philosophers.
In the European Middle Ages, the Church even used to publish manuals for dying well, called ars moriendi, the art of dying.
Over the centuries, there is less reliance on the Church as a singular institution, and so death was, like so many things, privatized, and people had to make their own judgements about how to die well. But why should people be brave and accepting of the end of their lives? This is why some in the hospice movement which helps people at the end of their lives question the very idea of a good death.
Believing in life after death The belief in an afterlife runs psychologically deep and probably comes from our intuitions about the relationship between bodies and minds, Dr Jong adds. Bruce Hood and his colleagues ran studies on small children aged around four to five.
He showed them a hamster then said he could clone an exact replica. But when asked about the psychological traits of the clone e. In another set of experiments by Jesse Bering and colleagues, children were told about a mouse that had been eaten by an alligator.
And so it would seem that the children thought your biology ends when you die but some of your psychology lives on. This was true regardless of whether the children were brought up in religious or secular non-religious homes.
But research by people such as Hood and Bering suggests that children naturally develop these beliefs, and sometimes keep them as adults.
This basic and deep-seated idea, that our minds - our memories, our emotions, our desires - are somehow distinct and separate from our bodies is what enables us to believe that while our bodies might die, we might somehow still go on, perhaps as immaterial souls.
Soothing belief in the afterlife Some people find belief in an afterlife very soothing. It can help with grief, loss and sadness. Especially for people who have a very harsh life, thinking it will be better after death can help. For example, African-American slaves often sang songs about the afterlife to soothe their brutally cruel existence.
It is a small step from believing that humans consist of bodies and souls to believing in an afterlife, and a smaller step from that to believing in a pleasant afterlife in which we are reunited with our loved ones.Explanation of the famous quotes in Jane Eyre, including all important speeches, comments, quotations, and monologues.
Introduction: I have undertaken this review of the case against Dr. Andrew Wakefield because the issues involved are far more consequential than the vilification of one doctor.
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