Social influence Social influence is an overarching term given to describe the persuasive effects people have on each other. It is seen as a fundamental value in social psychology and overlaps considerably with research on attitudes and persuasion. The three main areas of social influence include:
Overview[ edit ] Group polarization is an important phenomenon in social psychology and is observable in many social contexts. For example, a group of women who hold moderately feminist views tend to demonstrate heightened pro-feminist beliefs following group discussion.
Psychologists have found that social media outlets such as Facebook and Twitter demonstrate that group polarization can occur even when a group is not physically together.
As long as the group of individuals begins with the same fundamental opinion on the topic and a consistent dialogue is kept going, group polarization can occur. However, in situations where groups are somewhat newly formed and tasks are new, group polarization can demonstrate a more profound influence on the decision-making.
Reinforcement theorySelective exposure theoryand Subjective validation Attitude polarization, also known as belief polarization and polarization effect, is a phenomenon in which a disagreement becomes more extreme as the different parties consider evidence on the issue.
It is one of the effects of confirmation bias: InCharles LordLee Ross and Mark Lepper  performed a study in which they selected two groups of people, one group strongly in favor of capital punishmentthe other strongly opposed. The researchers initially measured the strength with which people held their position.
Later, both the pro- and anti-capital punishment people were put into small groups and shown one of two cards, each containing a statement about the results of a research project written on it.
Kroner and Phillips compared murder rates for the year before and the year after adoption of capital punishment in 14 states. In 11 of the 14 states, murder rates were lower after adoption of the death penalty. This research supports the deterrent effect of the death penalty.
Palmer and Crandall compared murder rates in 10 pairs of neighboring states with different capital punishment laws. In 8 of the 10 pairs, murder rates were higher in the state with capital punishment.
This research opposes the deterrent effect of the death penalty. Finally, the trial was rerun on all participants using a card that supported the opposite position to that they had initially seen. This suggests that a general phenomenon of choice-shifts exists apart from only risk-related decisions.
The study found that situations that normally favor the more risky alternative increased risky shifts. More so, situations that normally favor the cautious alternative increased cautious shifts.
These findings also show the importance of previous group shifts.
Choice shifts are mainly explained by largely differing human values and how highly these values are held by an individual. According to Moscovici et al.
Group Behavior and Processes Paper CJA/ December 15, Group Behavior and Processes Paper Police managers over the past 20 years have begun to use intelligence analysis, crime analysis, and problem-oriented policing in order to combat crime across the country. advances in alphabetnyc.com psychology. vol. i1 group-induced polarization of attitudes and behavior’ helmut lamm padagogische hochschule koln, west germany. In this paper I will analyze recent political behavior in terms of two factors: Group behavior with an emphasis on polarization, and competition. However, one .
While an extremist in the group may sway opinion, the shift can only occur with sufficient and proper interaction within the group.
In other words, the extremist will have no impact without interaction. Also, Moscovici et al. This finding demonstrates how one opinion in the group will not sway the group; it is the combination of all the individual opinions that will make an impact. In early studies, the risky-shift phenomenon was measured using a scale known as the Choice-Dilemmas Questionnaire.
This measure required participants to consider a hypothetical scenario in which an individual is faced with a dilemma and must make a choice to resolve the issue at hand. Participants were then asked to estimate the probability that a certain choice would be of benefit or risk to the individual being discussed.
Consider the following example: A, an electrical engineer, who is married and has one child, has been working for a large electronics corporation since graduating from college five years ago. He is assured of a lifetime job with a modest, though adequate, salary and liberal pension benefits upon retirement.
On the other hand, it is very unlikely that his salary will increase much before he retires. While attending a convention, Mr. A is offered a job with a small, newly founded company which has a highly uncertain future.
The new job would pay more to start and would offer the possibility of a share in the owner- ship if the company survived the competition of the larger firms. They would then be provided with a series of probabilities that indicate whether the new company that offered him a position is financially stable.
It would read as following "Please check the lowest probability that you would consider acceptable to make it worthwhile for Mr. A to take the new job. A should not take the new job no matter what the probabilities. Individuals completed the questionnaire and made their decisions independently of others.
Later, they would be asked to join a group to reassess their choices. Indicated by shifts in the mean value, initial studies using this method revealed that group decisions tended to be relatively riskier than those that were made by individuals.Group Polarization And Competition In Political Behavior Essay - On Tuesday, November 14, , in what has been perceived as the years biggest non-event, the federal government shut down all "non-essential" services due to what was, for all intents and purposes, a game of national "chicken" between the House Speaker and the President.
Analysis of the choice dilemma polarization scores indicated that the exposure treatments did, indeed, increase response polarization relative to responses on the no-exposure items of these two conditions, F(1,) = , p.
In this paper I will analyze recent political behavior in terms of two factors: Group behavior with an emphasis on polarization, and competition. However, one . An Analysis of Group Behavior with an Emphasis on Polarization and Competition PAGES WORDS 2, View Full Essay.
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Group Polarization And Competition In Political Behavior - On Tuesday, November 14, , in what has been perceived as the years biggest non-event, the federal government shut down all "non-essential" services due to what was, for all intents and purposes, a game of national "chicken" between the House Speaker and the President.
Group polarization has been widely discussed in terms of political behavior (see political polarization). Researchers have identified an increase in affective polarization among the United States electorate, and report that hostility and discrimination towards the opposing .